The supporting tissue of the tooth, periodontum, includes tooth root cementum, the periodontal ligament that connects the root to the bone, alveolar bone and the gums-gingiva. A branch of dentistry that deals with the study and treatment of the supporting tissue of the tooth is called periodontology.
A healthy periodontum is a firm foundation for every tooth.
Periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria. The risk factors for their occurrence are bad oral hygiene, smoking, uncontrolled diabetes and genetic factors.
Bacteria are accumulated on a tooth surface and they form dental plaque which develops into tartar, a mineralized form of dental plaque. Tartar by itself does not cause periodontal diseases. On its rough surface, which cannot be adequately cleaned, new bacteria accumulate causing infection in the nearby periodontum.
The infection first develops in the surface layers of the periodontum and manifests as gingivitis, the inflammation of the gums-gingiva. Gingivitis is reversible. Once tartar has been professionally removed from the tooth surface and adequate oral hygiene has been maintained it can be reversed. If it is not treated, however, the progression of the infection may lead to the alveolar bone destruction and subsequently to the loss of the periodontal ligament and the gum retreat. Periodontitis can be seen also on the x-ray scans and although the alveoral bone loss cannot be reversed, if treated, the advancement of parodontitis can be effectively stopped.
A periodontal therapy begins with the assessment of periodontal indexes that indicate the advancement of periodontitis. Subsequently, the initial periodontal treatment is carried out. It consists of grating and polishing the root surface in order to remove tartar, clean and smooth out all tooth surfaces, enabling the patient to maintain his or her oral hygiene regularly. If needed, the patient also receives antibiotic treatment. Periodontitis requires regular dental checkups and an active involvement in the maintenance of adequate oral hygiene. Once the initial treatment has been successfully carried out, surgical procedures and the guided periodontal tissue regeneration can be performed.
Other periodontal treatments we offer include also the concealment of non-inflammatory recessions and gingivectomy, i.e. dental crown lengthening procedure.